In chapter 4 of James Rachels and Stuart Rachels book, The Elements of Moral Philosophy, the authors examine the philosophical question whether morality depends on religion. The elements of moral philosophy. Log in Sign up. The Elements of Moral Philosophy by James Rachels and Stuart Rachels is a best-selling text for undergraduate courses in ethics.Thirteen thought-provoking chapters introduce readers to major moral concepts and theories in philosophy through clear, understandable explanations and compelling discussions. Such universal rules are necessary for society to exist. In addition to this problem with moral confirmation, egoism has problems with practicability. In “Elements of Moral Philosophy" James Rachels questions this process of gleaning moral information from religion solely and takes this almost automatic assumption to task in the several sections of the chapter. This is a difficult task since so many possible and rival definitions exist, therefore the common ground can be defined as only the “minimum conception" and although it is not immediately defined, the reader of “Elements of Moral Philosophy" is given examples involving handicapped children to illustrate. 8.4. Get this from a library! The Elements of Moral Philosophy is organized around the great moral theories: Utilitarianism, Kantianism, the Social Contract Theory, and so on. eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'articlemyriad_com-banner-1','ezslot_6',361,'0','0']));“Elements of Moral Philosophy" by James Rachels Chapter 3 Summary. All Rights Reserved. It is generally agreed that this sort of unselfish behavior is sometimes required by morality, although there is considerable disagreement as to how much of it is required. Right acts determined solely by the goodness of the results b. It explores the nature of morality and examines how people should live their lives in relation to others. *You will get your 1st month of Bartleby for FREE when you bundle with these textbooks where solutions are available ($9.99 if … Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Again, the ego is never absent and even when we may think we are being altruistic, it must always be considered. Conclusion 202 Notes on Sources 204 Index I-1 Email Me Your Thoughts. Moral Philosophy 152 notes from 2016. Study Ethics: Elements of Moral Philosophy Ch. Why? This could obvious pose serious problems. Samenvatting The elements of moral philosophy James Rachels and Stuart Rachels Aantekeningen Praktische filosofie, college 1-10 Samenvatting Recht in Context Sanne Taekema, Jeanne Gaakeer, Marc Loth Summary Organizational Behaviour Chapter 1-15 Summary Leadership: Theory and Practice Chapter 1-4, 6, 8,9,11,12,14 Book solution "Microeconomics and Behavior", Robert H. Frank; Ian C. … Consider, for example, the duty of beneficence. It is difficult to agree with the point James Rachels makes in “Elements of Moral Philosophy" about the problem with this theory. The Elements of Moral Philosophy 9e by James Rachels and Stuart Rachels is a best-selling text for undergraduate courses in ethics. JAMES RACHELS THE ELEMENTS OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY CHAPTER 8 : THE DEBATE OVER UTILITARIANISM The utilitarian doctrine is that happiness is desirable, and the only thing desirable, as an end; all other things being desirable as means to that end. Chapter Summary. I made few important changes to this chapter. Edition 4th ed. Accord-ing to the Theory of Natural Law, beneficence is natural for Upgrade to remove ads. But not true. However, its best material is now in the chapter on Ethical Egoism. Self-Quiz. When we examine morality based on religious doctrine, there are an infinite number of obstacles to overcome in reasoning. These revelations completely break down what we thought we knew about heroic deeds and it becomes apparent that generally, the theory of psychological egoism is actually quite a feasible idea. Suggestions Use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. One branch, meta-ethics, investigates big picture questions such as, “What is morality?” “What is justice?” “Is there truth?” […] The approach taken in this text, while specific to the AQA philosophy and OCR religious programs, would work quite well with lower level/introductory ethics students, who have no background in philosophy. I’m not sure I agree with this, as there are always counterarguments to be made. You should be able to pick apart this argument pretty easily, especially if you have read the chapter. - It implies that we're ALWAYS right.... - is honestly representi…. The world has a certain order - everything has a purpose (Theist: there is a Divine Plan), 1. They noted that in popular thinking, morality and religion are inseparable and that people generally accept that morality can be understood only in the framework of religion . Chapter Summary. Also, it cannot account that there is disagreement in ethics and to account for this it evolved even further into what Stevenson calls “Emotivism." For instance, all cultures generally share some of the same moral and ethical values in common. Moral philosophy has three branches. The Moral Community 200 13.5. What kind of act it is, the motive behind the act, and the kind of person who did the act don't matter; all that matters in determining if an act is right/wrong is its consequences Does morality hinge on religion and does religion then turn contingent to morality? Thirteen thought-provoking chapters introduce readers to major moral concepts and theories in philosophy through clear, understandable explanations and … One moral rule central to utilitarianism i. I now say that the big bang occurred 13.7 billion, not 15 billion, years ago. class before, so I was very interested in learning about different philosophies. Chapter Summary. Emotivism. Flashcards. The chapter on Psychological Egoism was an odd duck, since Psychological Egoism is not one of the great moral theories. It explains a number of moral theories and topics, including cultural relativism, subjectivism, divine command theory, ethical egoism, social contract theory, utilitarianism, Kantian ethics, and deontology. Philosophy is a discipline and a process. The chapter explores two main theories that have been used in attempting to find an answer to the above-mentioned question: The Divine Command theory and the theory of Natural Law. The treat happiness equally put it, “as impartial a disinterested and spectator.” abstractly, but has Moral Philosophy 152 summary written in 2016. Chapter 1: What is Morality? Philosophy is a discipline and a process. “Elements of Moral Philosophy" by James Rachels Chapter 5. from the boo As a discipline, philosophy is typically categorized among the humanities; it is a field out of which others — such as biology, physics, and psychology, and political — have evolved. This also means that there are no universal truths in ethics, everyone’s culture is different and it can be only be understood within the context of that particular culture. This leads to the complete “minimum conception" of morality which brings together these two aspects of moral decision making. Browse. My email address is srachels@bama.ua.edu. The Elements of Moral Philosophy, James Rachels, Stuart Rachels The Elements of Moral Philosophy, by James Rachels and Stuart Rachels, is an ethics textbook. As expressed in “Elements of Moral Philosophy" by James Rachels, different cultures have unique customs and ways of thinking. ", Any situation in which a difficult choice has to be made between two alternatives, Problems with "God commands it because it's right", Problems with "Something is right because God commands it", Logical argument in which you assume what the person says is true then see that it leads to absurd or ridiculous consequences, 1. We may, like the Swedish official, want to make ourselves feel as though we’re leading a more significant and meaningful life so we in turn volunteer at homeless shelter or do some other random act of kindness because it makes us feel better about who we are. There are some aspects of Hume's moral philosophy that have led certain of his critics to believe that he advocated a purely selfish as well as individualistic conception of morals. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as … Study The Elements of Moral Philosophy discussion and chapter questions and find The Elements of Moral Philosophy study guide questions and answers. 84 THE ELEMENTS OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY Meanwhile, others will be doing the same thing. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. James Rachels’ The Elements of Moral Philosophy Lecture notes by Dan Gaskill . We must make decisions and think about moral issues on grounds that are more substantial than feeling, they must also be provable and backed up by solid fact rather than varied opinions. eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'articlemyriad_com-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_7',700,'0','0']));“Elements of Moral Philosophy" by James Rachels : Summary of Chapter 4. Chapter 13, "What Would a Satisfactory Moral Theory Be Like?" Anencephalic infants: born without cerebrum and cerebellum -- portions of the brain necessary for higher brain functions and consciousness. It's not clear that anything in nature acts for a particular purpose - view isn't scientific (cause and effect), There is no description of the way the world IS now that can ON ITS OWN can tell us how the world OUGHT TO BE. Hegel's Elements of the Philosophy of Right - edited by David James February 2017 Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. The Elements of Moral Philosophy ... lasfifty years in Chapter 1 • Broadened dialogue on monogamy in Chapter 2 • Expanded discussion of homosexuality in Chapter 3 • Updated account of Classical Utilitarianism that explains what “equal consideration” is at the beginning of Chapter 8 However, the book covers only 4 major ethical theories: utilitarianism, deontology, virtue theory and natural law theory. Chapter 4 of “The Elements Of Moral Philosophy” by James Rachels opens up by raising a question. This is called Simple Subjectivism, but it is not a perfect theory. Create. I then consider what bearing his responses had on the moral philosophy that came after him, which for convenience I will refer to as modern moral philosophy. Preview 1 out of 7 pages. 116 THE ELEMENTS OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY a him These are all facts about the are determining our But makes the irrelevant, and seems . A summary of Part X (Section5) in 's Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831). Summary on the Elements of Moral Philosophy by James Rachels pp. The strategy of rule utilitarianism is to generate general moral rules (or principles) and practices (such as the practice of making promises). In chapter 4 of James Rachels and Stuart Rachels book, The Elements of Moral Philosophy, the authors examine the philosophical question whether morality depends on religion. For instance, if it were correct, it states that we are all incapable of being incorrect thus it does not make sense since not everyone can be right. Philosophy. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. The other side argued that it was wrong to use a human life in order to fulfill the needs of another human life and that Baby Theresa’s autonomy must be preserved—even if she cannot think or act for herself. 4. This “divine command theory" means that ethics decisions should be based on God’s law far more than any set of personal feelings, but as the author mentions, what about atheists? argument, flawed. This first chapter of “Elements of Moral Philosophy" by James Rachels begins by attempting to define morality. Chapter 5: Psychological Egoism An action is altruistic when it involves making a personal sacrifice for the benefit of others. This contrasts to act utilitarianism and its focus on individual acts. 199 “Elements of Moral Philosophy” by James Rachels begins by attempting to define morality. STUDY. 8: The Debate over Utilitarianism. It takes issue with the fact that much of our American concept of ethics and morality is based upon what the clergy and religious officials think and this makes our country rather unique. When we turn this into an argument, however, it is clear that there are both positive and negative aspects to seeing things in a more culturally-open way. The new version is 778 words shorter. The Elements of Moral Philosophy, in Three Books with a Brief Account of the Nature, Progress, and Origin of Philosophy, ed. On the one hand, the benefits argument declared that her organs would do her no good and that she would not lead a normal life. Moral Philosophy 152 notes from 2016. Created by. Preview 1 out of 7 … Elements Of Moral Philosophy by James Rachels available in Trade Paperback on Powells.com, also read synopsis and reviews. Here are 78 examples of how I've improved the writing in chapters 9-13 of The Elements of Moral Philosophy.I'll give you the fifth edition (5/e) versions followed by the sixth edition (6/e) versions. THE ELEMENTS OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY natural But there are for human Moral rules are now the nature. Please send me any comments you have about The Elements of Moral Philosophy. It explores the nature of morality and examines how people should live their lives in relation to others. In general, ethical subjectivism states that everyone has an opinion, but these are just thoughts and feelings rather than facts thus no one is right. 1st fn: to express one's attitude... 2nd fn: (for moral language)…. Even pity cannot be left out of this equation since as Hobbes mentions, pity is so powerful because we “feel" another person’s pain—that is, we think of ourselves and how we would feel in such a situation. In this way the commandments set forth by God can be seen as arbitrary, even if we do not believe they are. This side made the argument that life is worthless without the ability to interact with others and the world and that mere biological existence is useless. The definition at the end of the first section of “Elements of Moral Philosophy", however, is that of psychological egoism, which states that we are perhaps not as altruistic as we may seem—that many of our seemingly unselfish acts are actually for our better and selfish interest. In 1995, Judge Roy Moore was sued for having the Ten Commandments out in plain view on his desk. I welcome all suggestions for how to make the next edition even better. One branch, meta-ethics, investigates big picture questions such as, “What is morality?” “What is justice?” “Is there truth?” […] Furthermore, as “Elements of Moral Philosophy" suggests, what if these are simply arbitrary commandments—what if God had commanded that we all accept murder, for example? Moral Philosophy 152 notes from 2016. Despite some of the problems with the cultural relativism argument, there are some considerations to be made. Test. Learn. The Elements of Moral Philosophy by James Rachels and Stuart Rachels is a best-selling text for undergraduate courses in ethics.Thirteen thought-provoking chapters introduce readers to major moral concepts and theories in philosophy through clear, understandable explanations and compelling discussions.

the elements of moral philosophy chapter 4 summary

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