The Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi was overthrown in August 2011 and killed in October 2011. Security forces retaliated by opening fire on the protesters. In 2011, the IAEA reported credible evidence that Iran had been conducting experiments aimed at designing a nuclear bomb until 2003 and that research may have continued on a smaller scale after that time. It gained prominence after it drove Iraqi government forces out of key cities in western Iraq in June 2014. They are opposed to the Assad government, but have directed most of their efforts against Al-Nusra Front and ISIL. To generate funds to purchase arms, some rebel groups have turned towards extortion, theft, and kidnapping. It has no official religion, but the definition of the state as “Jewish and democratic” creates a strong connection with Judaism as well as a conflict between state law and religious law. Many Iranian Americans, even those who fled repression in Iran and oppose its government, welcomed the JCPOA as a step forward. endobj More than 90 countries endorsed the agreement as did many international organizations, including the UN and NATO. U.S. pro-Israel groups are divided on the JCPOA. By October, the FSA started to receive active support from the Turkish government, which allowed the rebel army to operate its command and headquarters from the country’s southern Hatay Province close to the Syrian border and its field command from inside Syria. Elsewhere, most notably in the monarchies of Morocco and the Persian Gulf, existing regimes co-opted the Arab Spring movement and managed to maintain order without significant social change. UN has also accused ISIS forces of using public executions, amputations, and lashings in a campaign to instill fear. However, the power vacuum following Saddam’s demise and the mismanagement of the occupation led to widespread sectarian violence and insurgency against U.S. and coalition forces. Since the uprising, the Syrian government has been accused of using shabiha to break up protests and enforce laws in restive neighborhoods. Furthermore, the end of the Cold War and Soviet occupation of Afghanistan has eliminated the common atheist Communist enemy uniting some religious Muslims and the capitalist west. The invasion preserved the autonomy of the Kurdish region and because the Kurdish region is historically the most democratic area of Iraq, many Iraqi refugees from other territories fled into the Kurdish land. Compare democratic and authoritarian countries in the Middle East. Protesters on Avenue Habib Bourguiba, downtown Tunis on January 14, 2011, a few hours before president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali fled the country, VOA Photo/L. In 2014, ISIS took over the cities of Mosul and Tikrit and stated it was ready to march on Baghdad. The number of legalized political parties in Tunisia has grown considerably since the beginning of the democratic reforms. 2 0 obj By mid-2014, the country was in chaos with a new government yet to be formed following national elections and the insurgency reaching new heights. Death of the great Muslim reformer, Muhammad Abdu. The Taliban differed from other Islamist movements to the point where they might be more properly described as Islamic fundamentalist or neofundamentalist, interested in spreading “an idealized and systematized version of conservative tribal village customs” under the label of Sharia to an entire country. Also, in the northeast local Kurdish militias have taken up arms and fought with both rebel Islamist factions and government loyalists. The rise of radical Islamism is a result of many complex factors, including Western colonialism in Muslim-dominated regions, state-sponsored aggressive popularization of ultra-orthodox interpretations of Islam, Western and pro-Western Muslim support for Islamist groups during the Cold War, and victories of Islamist groups over pro-Western politicians and factions in the Middle East. All states in the region face serious human rights challenges. Both external and internal conflict, ongoing political instability, and the Syrian refugee crisis remain grave dangers for children. 3 0 obj Saudi Arabia and Qatar have devotec considerable energies to spreading Salafism and to gaining influence in the countries that benefited from their financial support. Following the Arab Spring trends across the Arab world, in March 2011 protesters marched in the capital of Damascus, demanding democratic reforms and the release of political prisoners. By the end of February 2012, rulers had been forced from power in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen. Beginning in the 1970s, Western and pro-Western governments often supported fledgling Islamists and Islamist groups that later came to be seen as dangerous enemies. As our world becomes increasingly interconnected, today’s young learners must develop strong 21st century skills in critical thinking, communication, collaboration and creativity. UN also reported that armed forces of both sides of the conflict blocked access of humanitarian convoys, confiscated food, cut off water supplies, and targeted farmers working their fields. A printable version of this timeline is available for download at the bottom of this page. The council, based in Turkey, attempted to organize the opposition. The tens of billions of dollars obtained from the recently heightened price of oil funded most of the expenses associated with the resurgence. Tunisia experienced a series of conflicts during the three years leading up to the Arab Spring, most notably in the mining area of Gafsa in 2008 where protests continued for many months. Celebrations in Tahrir Square after Omar Suleiman’s statement concerning Hosni Mubarak’s resignation, photo by Jonathan Rashad. Estimates of deaths in the Syrian Civil War, per opposition activist groups, vary between 321,358 and 470,000. In December 2014, NATO formally ended combat operations in Afghanistan and transferred full security responsibility to the Afghan government. Soon after the invasion, opium production increased markedly. Pluto Is A Dwarf. Although outgunned and outnumbered, insurgents from the Taliban and other radical groups have waged asymmetric warfare with guerrilla raids and ambushes in the countryside, suicide attacks against urban targets, and turncoat killings against coalition forces. In the aftermath of the Arab Spring in various countries, there was a wave of violence and instability commonly known as the Arab Winter or Islamist Winter. In March 2015, Al-Jazeera estimated 10.9 million Syrians, or almost half the population, were displaced. Iran will implement an Additional Protocol agreement, which will continue in perpetuity for as long as Iran remains a party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The armed opposition consists of various groups that were either formed during the course of the conflict or joined from abroad. The country was under emergency rule from 1963 until 2011 and public gatherings of more than five people were banned. In October 2014, British forces handed over the last bases in Helmand to the Afghan military, officially ending their combat operations in the war. Hours before the official announcement of the activation of JCPOA in January 2016, Iran released four imprisoned Iranian Americans. The first created a flow of many billions of dollars from Saudi Arabia to fund Islamic books, scholarships, fellowships, and mosques around the world. The trafficking of accumulated stocks continued in 2000 and 2001. Iraqi police show of their ink-stained index fingers – proof that they visited the polls to cast their ballot in Iraq’s historic parliamentary elections in 2005, photo by Jim Goodwin. The council, based in Turkey, attempted to organize the opposition. As the conflict has expanded across Syria, many cities have been engulfed in a wave of crime as fighting caused the disintegration of much of the civilian state and many police stations stopped functioning. Iran’s Fordow facility will stop enriching uranium and researching uranium enrichment for at least 15 years and the facility will be converted into a nuclear physics and technology center. Following the ratification of the CRC, Middle Eastern countries have enacted or proposed laws to protect children from violence, abuse, neglect, or exploitation. ; online survey 1. Albrecht Schnabel argues that a strong civil society is required to produce leaders and mobilize the public around democratic duties, but for such a civil society to flourish, a democratic environment and process allowing freedom of expression and order is required in the first place. In Egypt, the labor movement had been strong for years and provided an important venue for organizing protests and collective action. Arab Spring, wave of pro-democracy protests and uprisings that took place in the Middle East and North Africa beginning in 2010, challenging some of the region’s entrenched authoritarian regimes. Iran is “considered a strong emerging market play” by investment and trading firms. It followed the JPA and an Iran nuclear deal framework was reached in April 2015. Since the civil uprising phase of the Syrian Civil War, Iran has provided the Syrian government with financial, technical, and military support, including training and some combat troops. The rationale and misrepresentation of pre-war intelligence faced heavy criticism within the U.S. and internationally. Their intention was to demonstrate against labor discrimination, unemployment, looting of resources, and human rights abuses. However some elections in Iran, such as those for city councils, satisfies free and democratic election criteria to some extent. The violence has caused millions to flee their homes. The Iraq War began on March 20, 2003, with the United States, joined by the United Kingdom and several coalition allies, launching a “shock and awe” bombing campaign. Prior to the Arab Spring, social unrest had been escalating in the Arab world. All the six UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Syria have been damaged. Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif insisted that the tests were not in violation of the UNSC resolution. 2018-02-18 66 people on board plane that crashed in Iran Dena Mountain, Semirom, Isfahan, Iran Muslim Afghan enemies of the Soviet Union during the Soviet-Afghan War. Social networks were not the only instrument for rebels to coordinate their efforts and communicate. In 1981, Iranian officials concluded that the country’s nuclear development should continue. NATO became involved in ISAF in 2003 and later that year assumed leadership of its troops from 43 countries. The Foreign Policy Association reported that “the most perplexing component of the Iraq refugee crisis” was that the U.S. has accepted only around 84,000 Iraqi refugees. 25 iconic moments that define the 21st century thus far. Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki asked his parliament to declare a state of emergency that would give him increased powers, but the lawmakers refused. Those who have conducted airstrikes in Syria include the United States, Australia, Bahrain, Canada, France, Jordan, The Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom. Countries with greater access to social media, such as Tunisia and Egypt, proved more effective in mobilizing large groups of people and appear to have been more successful overall than those with greater state control over media. However, critics assert that these are not full multi-party systems since they do not allow citizens to choose between many different candidates for presidency election. Even though Lebanon, a parliamentary democracy that includes confessionalism (high-ranking offices are reserved for members of specific religious groups to prevent sectarian conflicts), is now rated “partly free,” the United States still considers Lebanon one of the most democratic nations in the Arab world. The Middle East at the Beginning of the 20th Century - Introduction This map is part of a series of 18 animated maps showing the history of The Middle East since the beginning of the 20th century. For troops in the U.S.-led multinational coalition, the death toll is carefully tracked and updated daily. In 2011, a record over three thousand civilians were killed, the fifth successive annual rise. His death on January 4, 2011, brought together various groups dissatisfied with the existing system, including many unemployed individuals, political and human rights activists, labor, trade unionists, students, professors, lawyers, and others, to begin the Tunisian Revolution. Social scientists have endeavored to understand the circumstances that led to this variation in outcome. The influence of social media on political activism during the Arab Spring has been much debated. Some of the most well-known attacks … The number of militant Islamic movements calling for “an Islamic state and the end of Western influence” is relatively small. In Egypt, the labor movement had been strong for years, with more than 3,000 labor actions since 2004, and provided an important venue for organizing protests and collective action. UN-backed peace talks have since taken place between the Afghan government and the Taliban. The funding was also used to reward journalists and academics who followed the Saudis’ strict interpretation of Islam known as Salafism (sometimes referred to as Wahhabism, but Salafists consider the term derogatory). By September 2011, Syrian rebels were engaged in an active insurgency campaign in many parts of Syria. The demonstrations, triggered directly by Bouazizi’s death, brought to the forefront such issues as high unemployment, food inflation, corruption, lack of political freedoms, and poor living conditions. As of 2017, Tunisia is considered the only full democracy in the Arab World. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Only two Middle Eastern countries are considered democratic and five others as partial democracies, while the rest are categorized as authoritarian regimes. Countries like Saudi Arabia, on the other hand, exhibited a strong mobilization of military force against protesters, effectively ending the revolts in their territories. Far and away the deadliest war of the 21st century was a conflict that had its genesis in the 20th. The seizure of Islam’s holiest site, the taking of hostages from among the worshipers, and the deaths of hundreds of militants, security forces, and hostages caught in crossfire in the ensuing battles for control of the site, all shocked the Islamic world. Human rights organizations note the country is currently at the stage of transition and they continue to observe whether the legislation is put in practice. An hour later he doused himself with gasoline and set himself afire. The al-Maliki government enacted policies that were widely seen as having the effect of alienating the country’s Sunni minority and worsening sectarian tensions. A UN fact-finding mission was requested by member states to investigate 16 alleged chemical weapons attacks. 04-21 Experts finally visit Douma site Douma, Damascus 2. CC licensed content, Specific attribution, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absolute_monarchy, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_of_the_Press_(report), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Morocco, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy_in_the_Middle_East, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_in_the_World, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_rights_in_Israel, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_rights_in_the_Middle_East, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_rights_in_Tunisia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women_in_Arab_societies, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Iraq, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Iraqi_voters_inked_fingers.jpg, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_and_modernity, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salafi_movement, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muslim_Brotherhood, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_fundamentalism, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Mosque_seizure, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_revival, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_State_of_Iraq_and_the_Levant, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Mosque_seizure#/media/File:Saudi_soldiers,_Mecca,_1979.JPG, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_in_Afghanistan_(2015%E2%80%93present), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ba'athist_Iraq, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu_Ghraib_torture_and_prisoner_abuse, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casualties_of_the_Iraq_War, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_in_Afghanistan_(2001%E2%80%932014), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Enduring_Freedom, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northern_Alliance, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2002_loya_jirga, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_on_Terror, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narang_night_raid, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pic_of_ramadi.jpg, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Narang_night_raid.jpg, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tunisian_Revolution, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Winter, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuareg_people, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Spring, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impact_of_the_Arab_Spring, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_revolution_of_2011, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sahrawi_people, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Spring#/media/File:Tunisia_Unrest_-_VOA_-_Tunis_14_Jan_2011_(2).jpg, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Spring#/media/File:Tahrir_Square_on_February11.png, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Nusra_Front, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_Syrian_Army, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refugees_of_the_Syrian_Civil_War, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Assad_family, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modern_history_of_Syria, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Damascus_Spring, http://data.unhcr.org/syrianrefugees/regional.php#_ga=1.11830832.584938222.1490028081, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_heritage_sites_damaged_during_the_Syrian_Civil_War, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Civil_War, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_rights_violations_during_the_Syrian_Civil_War, http://www.unhcr.org/en-us/syria-emergency.html, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_rights_violations_during_the_Syrian_Civil_War#/media/File:Wounded_civilians_arrive_at_hospital_Aleppo.jpg, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Civil_War#/media/File:Saadallah_after_the_explosion.jpg, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Atomic_Energy_Agency, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran_and_Libya_Sanctions_Act, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joint_Plan_of_Action, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran_nuclear_deal_framework, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_program_of_Iran, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_Revolutionary_Guard_Corps, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Israel_relations, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93United_States_relations, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanctions_against_Iran, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negotiations_leading_to_the_Joint_Comprehensive_Plan_of_Action, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joint_Comprehensive_Plan_of_Action, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Iran, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_on_the_Non-Proliferation_of_Nuclear_Weapons, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joint_Comprehensive_Plan_of_Action#/media/File:JCPOA_Signatures.png, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P5%2B1#/media/File:Iran_negotiations_about_Iran%27s_nuclear.jpg. Iran may continue research and development work on enrichment, but that work will take place only at the Natanz facility and include certain limitations for the first eight years. U.S. forces used white phosphorus to screen a retreat in the Battle of Ganjgal when regular smoke munitions were not available. When the Soviet Union abandoned the Marxist Najibullah regime and withdrew from Afghanistan in 1989 (the regime finally fell in 1992), many Muslims saw the victory as the triumph of Islamic faith over superior military power and technology that could be duplicated elsewhere. ISIL (commonly referred to ISIS) also operates or has affiliates in other parts of the world, including North Africa and South Asia. For example, in Egypt, most activists and protesters used Facebook (among other social media) to organize while in Iran, “good old-fashioned word of mouth” was the main means of communication. Different currents of Islamist thought have advocated a revolutionary strategy of Islamizing society through exercise of state power or a reformist strategy of re-Islamizing society through grassroots social and political activism. Aside from Israel, all of the above countries maintain the death penalty for serious crimes although no executions have been carried out in a long time. In Egypt, in Cairo particularly, mosques were one of the main platforms to coordinate the protest actions and raise awareness to the masses. The participation of the United States and Western European governments in Iran’s nuclear program continued until the 1979 Iranian Revolution that toppled the Shah of Iran. Similarly, Hamas is a Palestinian Sunni -Islamic fundamentalist that has been the governing authority of the Gaza Strip since 2007. This resulted in limited pro-democratic changes, with Tunisia emerging as the only democratic country in the Arab world. Advances in communication and information technology continue to create new opportunities and challenges for the future. By September 2011, Syrian rebels were engaged in an active insurgency campaign in many parts of Syria. According to the measure of the level of democracy in nations throughout the world published by Freedom House, the Middle Eastern countries with the highest scores are Israel, Tunisia, Turkey, Lebanon, Morocco, Kuwait, and Jordan. A popular uprising against military rule in 1954 saw the army transfer power to civilians. Countries with stronger civil society networks in various forms saw more successful reforms during the Arab Spring. Lebanon, Turkey, Kuwait, Morocco, and Jordan are all categorized as “partly free.” All of these countries are to some extent representative democracies. In the northwest of the country, the main opposition faction is the al-Qaeda -affiliated al-Nusra Front allied with numerous other smaller Islamist groups, some of which operate under the umbrella of the Free Syrian Army (FSA). The ensuing clashes claimed the lives of seven police officers and 15 protesters. In October 2014, Tunisia held its first elections under the new constitution following the Arab Spring. The first Muslim reaction to European encroachment was of rural and working class and not urban origin. The economic downturn caused by the conflict and sanctions also led to lower wages for shabiha members. What is happening in Middle East in 750CE. In the late 20th century an Islamic revival or Islamic awakening developed in the Muslim world,  manifested in greater religious piety and growing adoption of Islamic culture. At the same time, Middle Eastern history includes significant episodes of conflict between rulers and proponents of change. %���� Arguably the most controversial incident was a series of human rights violations against detainees in the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq. Although the long-term effects of the Arab Spring are not yet evident, its short-term consequences varied greatly across the Middle East and North Africa. Following the 1979 Revolution, most of the international nuclear cooperation with Iran was cut off. Islamists assume that cultural dependency robs one of faith and identity and thus destroys Islam and the Islamic community far more effectively than political rule. A total of 4,491 U.S. service members were killed in Iraq between 2003 and 2014. The invasion and occupation led to sectarian violence, which caused widespread displacement among Iraqi civilians. A number of sources have emphasized that as of at least late 2015/early 2016, the Syrian government was dependent on a mix of volunteers and militias rather than the Syrian Armed Forces. The operation was authorized by NATO and resulted in the death of ten Afghan civilians, most of whom were students and some of whom were children. Israel, Lebanon, Turkey, and Kuwait were determined to be “partly free” while all the other countries in the region received the “not free” status. Destructive effects of the conflict are caused by shelling, looting, and rebel occupation. The Taliban government refused unless it provided evidence of his involvement in the 9/11 attacks. The 21st Century. Democracy and Authoritarianism in the Middle East. In July 2011, seven defecting Syrian Armed Forces officers formed the Free Syrian Army (FSA), originally composed of defected Syrian military officers and soldiers aiming to overthrow the Assad government with united opposition forces.

middle east timeline 21st century

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