Howver, in Egypt, the hope for economic prosperity as a divided of peace helps to make the Egyptian populace amenable to the visit. – Oum Kalthoum, the most important singer in the history of Arabic music, dies. Video footage is available here. Although Sadat’s bold step towards final peace with Israel is vehemently opposed in intellectual and religious circles in Egypt and other Arab countries, Sadat earns the admiration of the West for his courage and vision for peace. – The Vichy government comes to power in France and tries to compel the Moroccan Sultan Muhammad V to comply with his government’s anti-Jewish legislation. 1936 - Israel Rokach becomes mayor. The expansion of Mesopotamian productivity increases the wealth of the whole empire. King Hussein of Jordan and Prime Minister Rabin of Israel sign a peace treaty ending the state of war between their two countries. 1917 - April: Tel Aviv and Jaffa deportation. A Special UN Commission on Palestine recommends the partition of historic Palestine into two separate states, one Jewish and the other Arab, with Jerusalem placed under international supervision. – East and West Pakistan (later Bangladesh) erupt into civil war. -Mao Zedong declares the formation of the People’s Republic of China. The war had been conducted with the utmost ferocity on both sides. He will remain president and supreme ruler of Syria and the Ba’ath Party until his death in 2000. Prior to the 1952 coup, Sadat had been engaged in violent activities against the British presence in Egypt, and was imprisoned for his role in the assassination of Amin Othman. The United Arab Emirates is declared an independent state under the leadership of Abu Dhabi’s ruler, Sheikh Zayid Ben Sultan Al Nahayan. All Arab oil-producing nations decide to impose an oil embargo on the United States and the European countries that support Israel. A deal brokered by the Organization of African Unity makes both countries relinquish the captured territories. In History. Sadat’s visit causes massive public euphoria among Israelis, who, for the first time, see an Arab leader coming to them offering peace and coexistence. See the article “Frontiers in North Africa” for more about events leading up to this agreement and its consequences in the region. During the next two years, the governing Revolutionary Command Council, led by Nasser, will suspend the constitution, disband parliament, abolish political parties, and initiate an ambitious and widely popular plan for agrarian reform which confiscates land held by the rich and redistributes it to poor peasants. 1600s. Superior in firepower, organization, and determination, Israel pushes back the invading armies and a cease-fire is declared in July. Egyptian feminist Huda Sha’rawi founds the Egyptian Feminist Union. – In August, King Hassan II of Morocco permits a new fifteen-minute TV news broadcast in Tamazight (the Berber language), every five minutes of the segment to be delivered in one each of the three major Berber dialects. – Nasser’s vice president, Anwar al-Sadat, is elected president of Egypt. These actions are based on the Iraqi claim that Kuwait was historically part of Iraq before the British created it artificially as a means of protecting their interests in the Arabian Peninsula. The Oslo II accords are signed in December at the White House in Washington, D.C. by Chairman Yasser Arafat and Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin in the presence of President Bill Clinton. About. Death of Ayatollah Khomeini, the political and spiritual leader of Iran since the 1979 revolution. Control of Morocco is granted to France and Spain. On October 6, the Jewish holy day Yom Kippur, and during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan, Egypt and Syria launch joint surprise air and land attacks on the Israeli forces in the Sinai Desert and the Golan Heights. – Libya and Algeria sign the Hassi Messaoud Accords of Union, but they are never implemented. American embassy staff will be held hostage until 1981. In the decade to come, close to 200,000 people will be killed in a period marked by terror attacks against both security personnel and innocent civilians, and by the assassinations of intellectuals, artists, politicians, and foreigners. Los acontecimientos más importantes de la célula. He returns on January 16th. Abdul Aziz’s victories across the Arabian Peninsula end the rule of the Hashemite family; al-Sharif Hussein is the last Hashemite to rule in Hijaz. The British mandate acquires jurisdiction de jure over Palestine. 18th Century. By the spring of 1948, more than 400,000 Arabs will have fled their land or been expelled. The potential threat of a regime overthrow by religious militants, as in Iran, prompts President Mubarak to adopt martial law and to use military tribunals to try Sadat’s assassins and their sympathizers. However, for most Palestinians, the Oslo II accords mark the beginning of widespread disillusionment with the peace process, as their living conditions worsen substantially after the signing of the accords. 17th Century. Israeli leaders ask for help from U.S. President Richard Nixon, who immediately orders a massive airlift of military equipment. The Camp David Accords will result in the 1979 signing of a treaty stipulating Israel’s return of the Sinai territory to Egypt. The Middle East is the territory that comprises today's Egypt, the Persian Gulf states, Iran, Iraq, Palestine, Cyprus and Northern Cyprus, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Gaza Strip, UAE, & Yemen. Click here for video footage. The FIS party is banned and more of its leaders and militants arrested. Osman I was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the dynasty that established and ruled the Ottoman Empire. Creation of the Association of Algerian Muslim Ulama under the leadership of Sheikh Abd al-Hamid Ben Badis. Israel is admitted to the United Nations, which passes a resolution placing Jerusalem under international authority. It is estimated that around 54,000 Algerians are killed. He reasserts the Palestinian right to sovereignty over their land, including East Jerusalem and the Islamic and Christian holy sites therein. North and South Yemen are reunited and become the Republic of Yemen; Sanaa is its capital, and Ali Abdallah Salah is its president. In spite of these clashes and tension, on December 26th Algeria holds the first balloting of its first multiparty elections since independence. linea del tiempo generación de las computadoras. Morocco needs to neutralize Libyan support for the Polisario Front, and Qadhafi needs to polish his international image and wants Morocco to surrender active Libyan dissidents to him. Oil prices in the world market drop by 40%, creating serious difficulties for developing countries that rely largely on income from hydrocarbons. After years of increasing financial and political domination by foreign interests — primarily France and Spain — Morocco officially becomes a French protectorate under the Treaty of Fez signed on March 30th. The Balfour Declaration (dated 2 November 1917) was a letter from the United Kingdom's Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Baron Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland. It also imposes temporary limits on Jewish migration to Palestine. – The Moroccan Tahar Ben Jelloun becomes the first Francophone writer from the Arab World to receive the prestigious Prix Goncourt in France, for his novel La Nuit Sacré (The Sacred Night) . Death of the great Muslim reformer, Muhammad Abdu. 7 January 2019. See video footage here. In Egypt, the political situation is rapidly deteriorating. Jordan got its independence in the 25th May 1946 , and since that time it became the Hashimite kingdom of Jordan. In Algeria, President Boumediene initiates a program of agrarian reform and nationalizes all foreign interests in the hydrocarbons industry. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing control of the Dead Sea with the latter. On June 2nd, American Senator John F. Kennedy delivers a speech before the Committee on Foreign Relations of the U.S. Congress in which he calls for the independence of Algeria. Saudi King Faisal is assassinated by a member of the royal family. Britain and France emerge victorious, but the Arab dream of independence is dealt a severe blow as the colonization of Arab lands continues with more vehemence. – Democratic elections are held in the Sudan. – Birth of the Lebanese lutist Marcel Khalifa, one of the most prominent composers and performers of modern Arabic music. At its greatest extent under Darius I stretches from the Aegean Sea and Libya to the Indus Valley. The organization will become the main instrument of resistance to the Israeli occupation of southern Lebanon. Ahmad Ben Bella, one of the leaders of the Algerian revolution, is declared president of a new regime characterized by populism and a socialist orientation. – In Morocco, a major constitutional reform adds a House of Counselors (upper house) to the parliament and alters the structures of representation and election to make them more accountable. – Irgun, a Jewish terrorist organization led by Menachim Begin, blows up the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, the headquarters of the British Palestine Administration, killing 91 people. The Oslo I agreement is signed following secret negotiations between the PLO and Israel in Norway. The Era of the French Revolution and Napoleon (GT) Mehmet Ali, Ismail, and the Development of Egypt (SH) 19th Century Middle East 19th century Egypt was largely the creation of Mehmet Ali Mehmet Ali and his descendants, acting as Ottoman governors of Egypt, who created the basic A chronology of key events: 1516-1918 - Lebanon part of the Ottoman Empire. Under the rulership of the Saud family, Wahhabism becomes the official Islamic trend in Saudi Arabia, and will later have a profound influence on the Taliban movement in Afghanistan. Its leaders accuse the PLO leadership of defeatism and a lack of will to engage the Israelis militarily. The Iranian revolution becomes an inspiration for Islamist movements worldwide. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing control of the Dead Sea with the latter. Faysal, the son of al-Sharif Hussein, becomes King of Iraq with the support of Great Britain, which controls the new country under the mandate system. See video here. Egyptian dispatches troops to support the new socialist republican regime, but they are met by the fierce resistance of royalist Yemeni tribal forces, which are themselves supported by Saudi Arabia, Iran and Jordan. For the Palestinians it is an annual day of commemoration of the displacement that followed the Israeli Declaration of Independence in 1948. – Spain occupies the northern tenth of Morocco (the Ifni region on the Atlantic coast and the enclaves of Ceuta and Melila). The Syrian forces attack Israeli positions in the Golan Heights and achieve similar initial victories. A few hours later, David Ben Gurion declares the independence of the state of Israel, which is quickly recognized by the USSR and U.S. On May 15th, a poorly-coordinated invasion of Israel by five neighboring Arab armies takes place. He sets up a Council of the Revolution, which will run the country for more than a decade. Poet and philosopher Mohammed Iqbal (1877-1938) pens Shikva, meaning “Complaint Against God,” a poem attacking Muslim traditionalists. Palestinian guerrillas from the Black September organization take 11 members of the Israeli Olympic team hostage at the Munich Olympic Games. See an image here. These sanctions will have a devastating effect on the Iraqi economy. The UN Security Council passes Resolution 242, calling for the withdrawal of Israeli forces from all occupied territories captured during the Six-Day War, declaring the right of all states to live in peace and security, and calling for a just resolution to the Palestinian “refugee problem.” The PLO rejects the reference to the Palestinians as merely a “refugee problem.” Egypt and Syria accept the resolution, but Israel rejects it. The women of the Egyptian Feminist Union spearhead the formation of the Arab Feminist Conference. Yacine questions the legitimacy of King Hassan II and suggests that he redeem himself by doing away with injustice, by committing himself to the renovation of Islam, and by making himself accountable to a council elected according to Islamic principles. As one of the original Free Officers of the 1952 coup, Sadat has held many official positions: editor of the newspaper Al-Jomhouriyya, Head of the Nation’s Assembly, Secretary General of the Conference of Islamic States, and Vice President. Period: Jan 1, 1900 to Dec 31, 1999. Visit the web page for the UN oil-for food Program here. Contrary to the pledge made to Hussein, Britain enters into the Sykes-Picot Agreement with France to divide the Arab Ottoman provinces among themselves. Though relations between Nasser and the United States were initially warm, Nasser’s policies of positive neutralism, his antagonism towards oil-rich Gulf monarchies, his call for Arab nationalism, and his opposition to the Baghdad Pact have angered the United States, which comes to view him as an obstacle to its objectives in the Middle East. – King Hassan II survives a second military coup attempt and executes or jails all those who participated in the plot or who are connected somehow to its authors, including their families. An Israeli unit led by General Ariel Sharon crosses the Suez Canal and advances toward Cairo. Sayyid Qutb, a radical Islamist ideologue, is executed in Egypt by Nasser’s regime. – Birth of the enormously popular female Lebanese singer Fairuz . -France determines that the Druze and the ‘Alawites should each have a separate state within the Syrian mandate, effectively cutting the two groups off from political participation in greater Syria. 13¾ by 19½ in.framed: 52.5 by 72.5cm. Iraq is shaken by a pro-German coup. The scandal shakes the foundations of the Saudi dynasty, whose claim to legitimacy rests on their protection of the holy places. – Rawiya Attiya is elected as Egypt’s first female member of parliament, after women in Egypt have had the right to vote since the year before. On May 14th, Great Britain withdraws its military and administrative personnel from Palestine. 1938 - Tel Aviv Zoo opens. The renunciation of Turkish claims over non-Turkish territories of the Ottoman Empire is formalized in the Treaty of Lausanne. See video here. The West Bank is annexed by Jordan, while the Gaza Strip falls under Egyptian control. Over the next several years, Bendjedid’s policies will strengthen the power of the sole legal party, the National Liberation Front (FLN), and will engage in liberal economic reforms intended to dismantle the socialist system build by his predecessor. King Farouq goes into exile in Italy, where he will die a few years later. Within days, more than 25 countries recognize the Palestinian government-in-exile. In Egypt, Hassan al-Banna creates the Muslim Brotherhood, which begins as a youth social club and attracts thousands of young Egyptians from all walks of life. The death of al-Assad is expected to bring about more political openness, but his son quickly assumes the tight control his father had exercised on the country. Middle East in the 20th century Period: Jul 28, 1914 to Nov 11, 1918. – UN Resolutions 731 and 748 impose sanctions on Libya for its alleged role in the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, and for the bombing of a French UTA plane that exploded over Niger. President Anwar Sadat of Egypt visits Jerusalem. – Morocco gains independence from France on March 2nd and King Muhammad V returns triumphant from exile. Vast numbers of Armenians are uprooted from Anatolia and forced to migrate into Syria. -The Association of Arab-American University Graduates is formes as a pan-Arab representative lobby. Arab leaders were among the foreign dignitaries who attended his funerals. Libya gains independence from Italy and Sayid Muhammad Idris al-Sanusi is declared king. In Syria, programs to redistribute land and implement socialist policies similar to those already in place in Egypt irritate a large section of the conservative Syrian populace. Nakba Day is generally commemorated on 15 May, the day after the Gregorian calendar date for Israeli Independence Day (Yom Ha'atzmaut). After two weeks police raid the Grand Mosque, causing approximately 200 casualties on both sides. Middle East - Timeline Index : Who, What, Where, When in a chronological context ... Cuneiform writing emerged in the Sumerian civilization of southern Iraq around the 34th century BC during the middle Uruk period, beginning as a pictographic system of wr... 2700 BC. Iraq also claims that Kuwait has been cheating on its exploitation quota for a jointly-owned oil well located on their common border. The army replaces him with Colonel Chadli Bendjedid. – Crown Prince Farouq of Egypt ascends to the throne following the death of his father, King Fouad. Their presence in the area having become untenable, the British hand the Palestine question to the United Nations. Click here for video. The action is again a failure, due primarily to local resistance and to active French and American opposition to the Libyan effort. – Saad Zaghlul founds the Egyptian nationalist party Wafd, which demands greater national autonomy, a constitutional government, control over the Suez Canal, and more civil rights. A printable version of this timeline is available for download at the bottom of this page. However, with the collapse of Léon Blum’s Popular Front government in France in 1938, the treaties will never be ratified and France’s heavy-handed occupation of both countries continues. In the course of the war, Israeli forces expel thousands of Palestinian Arabs and seize territory allotted to the Arab state under the UN Partition plan. Al-Qadhafi allies himself with Nasser and begins a wave of nationalizations, especially in the oil industry. The post-World War II era marks a shift in the emigration patterns of Arabs to the United States. The once-complacent Sultan Muhammad V of Morocco has become difficult to manage, and the French plot with Abd al-Hayy Kittani (leader of the Kittaniya religious brotherhood) and some tribal leaders from the south to depose him. -Anti-Apartheid activist Nelson Mandela is jailed in South Africa until 1990. A short war ensues and Algeria seizes Moroccan territory in the northeast. For the majority of Arabs within the Ottoman Empire, Hussein’s actions constitute a treasonous betrayal of the Sultan/Caliph. Colonel Houari Boumediene, Defense Minister of Algeria, overthrows President Ahmed Ben Bella in a bloodless coup on June 19th. He was the second President of Egypt from 1956 until his death. – Libya invades the Aouzzou strip in northern Chad, claiming it as Libyan territory. It was manifested in greater religious piety and a growing adoption of Islamic culture. Although the end of his rule was marked by a few steps towards political opening and acknowledgement of human rights, King Hassan had largely ruled Morocco with a strict authoritarianism, crushing political dissent and allowing only occasional truces with the opposition. Work is completed on the Aswan High Dam in Egypt. The first US Druze Society is formed in Seattle. The resistance of Palestinian irregulars and volunteers from neighboring Arab countries is no match for the experienced Irgun and Hadanah Jewish groups. One of the first Sunni Mosques in America is established in Dearborn, Michigan. – The beginning of the Nuremberg trials on October 28th sheds light on the extent of Nazi atrocities in Europe. Abdelaziz Bouteflika is elected President of Algeria on April 15th. British and American forces land in North Africa as “Operation Torch,” commanded by U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower and aimed at driving the Axis powers out of the region and mounting an assault on France and Italy. A timeline created with Timetoast's interactive timeline maker. Published. See, also, Edward Said’s article on The Consequences of 1948. The group responsible for Sadat’s assassination is called al-Jihad al-Islami (Islamic Jihad) ; it infiltrated the army and recruited officers to carry out the plot. He will be released by King Muhammad VI in the year 2000. The Arab Middle East extended from the Mediterranean to Mesopotamia, including the Arabian Peninsula and the Nile Valley. The U.S.-Middle East Connection: Interests, Attitudes and Images. During his visit to Jerusalem, Sadat addresses the Israeli Knesset, and prays at the al-Aqsa mosque, accompanied by Palestinian religious authorities. The entire Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza strip fall to Israeli military rule, and thousands of Egyptian troops are either killed or captured. Before tracing the rise of British prominence in the Middle East after 1798, it is important to note the historical antecedents of Britain's involvement in the region as well as the political and economic condition of the Ottoman Empire and Iran on the eve of Britain's ascendance. France and the United States are critical of the accord, the main purpose of which is to boost the Libyan and Moroccan positions in regional political maneuverings. Yacine sends Hassan II an open letter admonishing him to accept a six-point program for the “religious political redemption and salvation” of king and community. On the Syrian front, the Israeli forces destroy the Syrian defenses and capture the strategic Golan Heights, which will later be annexed to Israel. The Aswan High Dam, which will become a symbol of Egyptian national pride and economic prosperity, will be realized with the assistance of the Soviet Union. 1920 September - The League of Nations grants the mandate for … The armed clashes over border disputes with the Saudis will continue for decades. President Hafez al-Assad of Syria dies. Abdul Aziz ibn Saud conquers Mecca and Medina. – Raï music, formerly banned in Algeria, begins to get radio play in that country. Israel and Jordan are involved in a number of border skirmishes. Israeli ground troops destroy the Egyptian military units in the Sinai and advance on the Suez Canal. The UMA will largely lie dormant, however, blocked by rivalries between the two main players, Algeria and Morocco, and by their opposing views on the resolution of the western Sahara problem. Iraq gains nominal independence from Britain but is obliged to sign a treaty granting Britain privileges similar to those it maintains in Egypt. – Moroccan forces invade Algeria’s Tindouf area in the southwest in an attempt to capture territory that it argues was annexed to Algeria by colonial France. – Yasser Arafat and other Palestinian leaders return to Jericho in the West Bank, as stipulated by the Oslo I agreement, and create the Palestinian Authority, which will assume administrative and security control over the areas evacuated by Israel in the West Bank and Gaza. – The British Royal Commission on Palestine recommends the partition of Palestine to establish separate Jewish and Arab states. Click here for video. After the government forbids a March 9th lecture on Amazigh poetry by writer Mouloud Mammeri at the Tizi Ouzou University in the Kabyle region, people take to the streets in a massive protest march, the first of its kind in the history of independent Algeria. Disagreements and mutual suspicion between Egypt and Syria lead to dissolution of their union, the UAR. Property from the Azari Collection, Los AngelesSOHRAB SEPEHRI1928-1980IranianUNTITLEDsigned in Farsigouache and watercolour on papersheet: 34.9 by 49.5cm. In exchange for a British pledge to support a vaguely-defined Arab state independent of Ottoman control after the war, al-Sharif Hussein, the Emir of Mecca, agrees to lead an Arab rebellion against the Ottoman Empire. Thousands of Palestinians, both civilians and military personnel, are killed in what comes to be known as “Black September.” Nasser calls for an emergency Arab Summit in Cairo to arrange for cease-fire. These accords, which the Israelis call an “Interim Agreement,” gives the Palestinians full control over parts of the West Bank and Gaza. – After Lebanon and Syria fall under the control of the French Vichy government, Britain invades them and put Free French supporters in charge. Jordan got its independence in the 25th May 1946 , and since that time it became the Hashimite kingdom of Jordan. The Arab Revolt (1916–1918) . Pontoon bridges are run across the waterway and Egyptian troops and tanks cross the Suez Canal into the Sinai to recapture parts of the occupied lands. American history and world history can be … 1900s. 1700s. Syria’s Ba’ath party seizes power in a coup. – Yemen gains independence from Turkish rule, and Imam Yahyia is declared ruler. -The National Association of Arab Americans is formed as a foreign policy lobby group, which advocates for a nonpartisan US policy in the Middle East. Yasser Arafat is elected President of the Palestinian Authority. For some documentary footage from this time click here. The Israeli air force bombs the PLO headquarters in Tunis. 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middle east timeline 20th century

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