Short-term Trends Males perch on foliage or other parts of the host plants to await females (Opler and Krizek 1984). The larval hosts of the hackberry emperor are hackberry trees (Celtis spp.) 2005). Heavily warty trunk of the sugarberry, Celtis laevigata Willd., a host of the hackberry emperor, Asterocampa celtis (Boisduval & Leconte). They sit perched upon a branch waiting for a female to fly by. More information and a key to the Celtis species is available at efloras.org (undated) Princeton, New Jersey. The Johns Hopkins University Press. (2000) state that males can be attracted from their perches to land on pieces of white paper held in the sun. Both males and females are light brown with a row of black or white dots near the far edge of their wings. Granville Co., NC 6/4/05. View Hackberry Emperor butterflies, caterpillars, pupa, chrysalis and life cycle pictures. University of Pittsburgh Press. Moth caterpillars rely on the leaves of the netleaf hackberry and beavers are known to feed on the wood of this versatile tree. At the rear end, a pair of sharp tail-like protrusions is found. Adults are somewhat variable regionally and the variants (races) are sometimes given subspecific names. 1964. The hackberry emperor, is a North American butterfly that belongs to the brushfooted butterfly family, Nymphalidae. The body has numerous tiny yellowish-white, raised, seta-bearing bumps (chalazae). Hackberry, Celtis occidentalis L. (Celtidaceae), a larval host for the hackberry emperor, Asterocampa celtis (Boisduval & Leconte). It has been observed as far south as central Mexico and north into parts of Eastern Canada. [3][6], A. celtis usually lays eggs in clusters on the underside of hackberry leaves, although it has been observed to occasionally lay eggs on the top of a leaf. Larvae: Full grown larvae are approximately 1.4 inches in length (Minno et al. [8] They drink from water in puddles. The pale eggs are laid in clusters of 5-20 eggs on the host plant. ), Tawny Emperor larvae emerge from the leaf litter a few days later than Hackberry Emperor larvae in the spring. News, Season Sum. The various Emperor larvae eat plants in the Elm Family, Ulmaceae. The entire body is a bright green having pale yellow bumps. These species spend the winter as caterpillars. [12], CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "NatureServe Explorer 2.0 Asterocampa celtis Hackberry Emperor", "hackberry emperor - Asterocampa celtis (Boisduval & Leconte)", "SIGNIFICANCE OF VISITS BY HACKBERRY BUTTERFLIES (NYMPHALIDAE: ASTEROCAMPA) TO FLOWERS", "Lepidoptera associated with pig carrion", "General Notes: INSECT PARASITES AND PREDATORS OF HACKBERRY BUTTERFLIES (NYMPHALIDAE: ASTEROCAMPA)", "Mate-locating behavior of western North American butterflies", "Hackberry Emperor Asterocampa celtis (Boisduval & Leconte, [1835]) | Butterflies and Moths of North America", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Asterocampa_celtis&oldid=989299188, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 November 2020, at 05:07. A Host-Parasite Catalog of North American Tachinidae (Diptera), Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico, Florida Butterfly Caterpillars and their Host Plants, Florida Butterfly Gardening: A Complete Guide to Attracting, Identifying, and Enjoying Butterflies of the Lower South, Taxonomic and Host Catalogue of the Tachinidae of America North of Mexico. 1992. More information and a key to the Celtisspecies is available at efloras.org (undated) . [2] It gets its name from the hackberry tree (Celtis occidentalis and others in the genus Celtis) upon which it lays its eggs. Asterocampa celtis, the hackberry emperor, is a North American butterfly that belongs to the brushfooted butterfly family, Nymphalidae. Tachinid parasitoid listed from Asterocampa celtis (Arnaud 1978), Ichneumonid parasitoid listed from Asterocampa celtis (Krombein et al. [3], Species in the genus Asterocampa are regarded as being "cheater" organisms, since these butterflies do not pollinate flowers when they feed from them. Possible explanations include higher fecundity that may be aided by aposematic coloration. Hill Forest, Durham Co., NC 7/4/2003. 1986. Jun 2, 2013 - The Hackberry Emperor (Asterocampa celtis) is a North American butterfly that belongs to the family of brushfooted butterflies, Nymphalidae. Control measures are not required. Adults feed on nectar from aster, dogbane, dogwood, goldenrod, sweet pepperbush and others flowers. Photograph by Jerry Butler, University of Florida. FW with bright white spots on blackish wingtip and one prominent black eyespot along outer edge. 2000). Wagner DL. Warty trunk of the sugarberry, Celtis laevigata Willd., a host of the hackberry emperor, Asterocampa celtis (Boisduval & Leconte). It is likely a permanent resident in southeastern New York, although individual colonies can be transient. [3][7], Pupae have a dark green color with white spots all around the body. Disclaimer: The content of NatureSearch is provided by dedicated volunteer Naturalists of Fontenelle Nature Association who strive to provide the most accurate information available. A detailed description of the mating behavior is given by Langlois and Langlois (1964). Hackberry Emperor (Asterocampa celtis) Empress leilia (Asterocampa leila) Tawny Emperor (Asterocampa clyton) Silver Emperor (Doxocopa laure) Asterocampa celtis (Boisduval & Le Conte) Hackberry Emperor. in the family Celtidaceae. Hackberry butterfly. They also sip moisture and minerals from mud and readily land on people to drink sweat for salts (Allen 1997, Glassberg et al. Other insect feeders include Corythucha celtidis (Hackberry Lace Bug), Taedia celtidis (Hackberry Plant Bug), and several Pachypsylla spp. Hackberry, Celtis occidentalis L. (Celtidaceae), a larval host for the hackberry emperor, Asterocampa celtis (Boisduval & Leconte). The Hackberry Emperor caterpillar in the photo below has fallen victim to a parasitic wasp. [11], A. celtis exhibit perching behavior. More information and a key to the Celtisspecies is available at efloras.org (2009). Photograph by Don Hall, University of Florida. Figure 1. in the family Celtidaceae. At the rear, two sharp tails protrude outwards level with the abdomen. Washington, D.C. 177 pp. Discoloration can be seen around the galleries of the larvae, but this color pattern is most likely due to … More specifically, the butterfly lives in cities, forests, and wooded areas, and especially prefers areas near rivers or other bodies of water. Typically, the specialized relationship of flowering plants and butterflies results in mutual benefit, in that the butterfly gains nutrients from flower visits while the host plant gains reproductive fitness from assistance in pollination. Princeton, New Jersey. Hackberry Emperor Butterfly ADULT PAPER WASPS. Hackberry butterflies: dense swarms involved in a litigation in southern Louisiana (Nymphalidae: Asterocampa). The larval hosts of the hackberry emperor are hackberry trees (Celtis spp.) 400 pp. Florida Wildflowers & Butterflies ... Cream-yellow, laid singly on the underside of host leaves Mature larva: Light green with numerous tiny yellow spots, yellow longitudinal stripes, and two short tails. 1975). ANACUA TORTOISE BEETLE. Asterocampa celtis, the hackberry emperor, is a North American butterfly that belongs to the brushfooted butterfly family, Nymphalidae. The hackberry tree is the only host plant for A. celtis and is the food source for larvae. This is considered to be “cheater” behavior. Hackberry Emperor (Asterocampa celtis), (Boisduval & Leconte, [1835]) - 4557.000000 - 770640.000000 Wing span: 5.1-6.3 cm. The two most common hackberries in the eastern U.S., the more northern hackberry, Celtis occidentalis Linnaeus and the more southern sugarberry, Celtis laevigata Willd., can usually be recognized by the slightly to heavily warty appearance (or pronounced ridges on mature C. occidentalis) of the bark. Pupae: The pupae are green with small white spots and a white mid-ventral line that branches and runs to the tips of two horns at the anterior end of the pupa. Photograph by Don Hall, University of Florida. The hackberry emperor is found from northeastern Mexico northward into the southwestern U.S. and to Nebraska and throughout most of the eastern U.S. except for the northern half of Wisconsin, Michigan and New York and all of New England (Opler and Krizek 1984, Opler et al. Hackberry occurs at the northern extremity of its natural range in isolated pockets in southwestern Massachusetts, including on islands in the lower Connecticut River. Orange Co., NC 8/24/05. This shrub was growing at an angle, reaching towards the light. They must first climb back up their host tree to eat after they are done hibernating over winter. The larvae are specialized, and only feed on the various species of . . Larvae are similar to those of the hackberry emperor: green with yellow-green and white stripes; the last segment is forked. There are a variety of species of the hackberry line, and A. celtis is not found preferentially on any one kind of hackberry. [7], A. celtis adults exhibit sexual dimorphism. Figure 6. Consider the magnificent Hackberry tree, Celtis occidentalis. They are particularly easy to see at night by shining a flashlight up into small trees. on South Bass Island, Lake Erie. Photograph by Jerry Butler, University of Florida. In the spring, they emerge again and climb back up the hackberry tree to eat the foliage. Males have smaller, darker bodies and more slender wings than females. Miller JY, ed. Hackberry Emperor LARVA (Asterocampa celtis) next to Mantis Egg Case. [3], Pupae are found on the underside of hackberry leaves and metamorphose into adults in the early summer. Asterocampa celtis. Mourning Cloak, Question Mark, Hackberry Emperor, Comma, Snout, and Tawny Emperor butterflies host on this tree. As you might expect, the caterpillar is unlikely to survive. Figure 3. Dorsal wing view of an adult hackberry emperor, Asterocampa celtis (Boisduval & Leconte). [11], The hackberry emperor is not under serious threat. Identify butterflies and caterpillars by viewing photos. On the rare occasion that the butterfly visits flowers for feeding, it does not allow its feet or its antennae to touch the flower. Stanford, California. Caterpillars rest on the undersides of leaves. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera Vol. Granville Co., NC 6/4/05. A Catalog of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada with a Complete Bibliography of the Descriptive and Systematic Literature. The closely related Tawny Emperor larvae feed communally through the 3rd instar when they disperse to feed individually. Males are smaller and have narrower wings than females (Minno and Minno 1999). The bark is warty, like that of Sugarberry. 2000). The hackberry emperor is known for being a quick, mercurial butterfly. There are also white lines going diagonally across the abdomen. [3][6], Adult hackberry emperors lay two broods in a year. The stink bug is also a very common predator of hackberry emperor eggs. Hackberry is a US and Canada native. & Lec.) Glassberg J, Minno C, Calhoun JV. The peninsular Florida race is designated "reinthali" (Cech and Tudor 2005, Minno and Minno 1999). [7], A. celtis visits flowers in an unusual way. The Butterflies of West Virginia and their Caterpillars. Figure 4. State Ranking Justification. Daniels JC. The larva’s body is approximately 1.4 inches in length with the head bearing brown-black horn-like dorsal projections. Butterflies through Binoculars: Florida. Smithsonian Institution Press. Eggs are laid singly or in small groups on the undersides of leaves (Allen 2000, Opler and Krizek 1984, Scott 1986). Photograph by Don Hall, University of Florida. White spots near the front of the wing help distinguish it from a similar butterfly, the Tawny Emperor. Pupa of the hackberry emperor, Asterocampa celtis (Boisduval & Leconte). Three species of butterflies feed on the leaves as larvae: Hackberry Emperor, Tawny Emperor, and American Snout. See Wagner (2005) for excellent drawings of the cephalic horns and lateral spines of the hackberry emperor and tawny emperor. The head is ringed with small fingerlike projects, and 2 larger projections on top of the head fork and resemble miniature deer antlers. Detail of the warty bark of medium-sized tree. Photograph by Jerry Butler, University of Florida. According to Caterpillars of Eastern North America (Wagner, 2005), caterpillars of tawny emperor “feed communally through the third instar”, but the hackberry emperor does not feed communally. Patrollers are attracted to still objects that resemble a mate. Pelham JP. The Butterflies of North America: A Natural History and Field Guide. New York, New York. Hackberry emperor (Asterocampa celtis, Nymphalidae) Although the adults superficially resemble the Painted Lady butterfly, they can be distinguished by the orange and black eyespots on their forewings. 40, 658 pp. The head has brown-black colored dorsal horns. Detailed historical information on the taxonomy and nomenclature of the hackberry emperor is found in the Catalog of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada (Pelham 2008). 1979. Hackberry Emperor. Hackberry emperor larvae are rarely numerous enough to seriously affect host trees. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 38: 252-253. 2005). Baltimore, Maryland. Some of the chalazae are arranged to form narrow stripes on the back and sides. Like the Hackberry Emperor, the larva of this species also depends on hackberry trees. The hackberry emperor is readily distinguished from the closely related and similar tawny emperor by the white spots near the apex of the front wing and the sub-marginal black eyespot (also on the forewing), characters that are lacking in the tawny emperor. Searching Hackberry stands, no matter how small, at the proper time of year, may lead to the discovery of additional populations of both emperor species in the Commonwealth. The caterpillars have been known to eat so much at a time that they can completely defoliate a tree. Eggs look white with a faint green-yellow hue. 1984. The lower half of the head is green with short green spines laterally. Photograph by Don Hall, University of Florida. Flight time: Apparently double brooded, with the first emerging from early-June to early-July, and the second during August. Also, they are known to land on humans to lick off their sweat to gain sodium. The body is a primarily green with whitish-yellow chalazae, or bumps. The Common Names of North American Butterflies. 583 pp. 1988). A nest of Paper Wasps (Polistes major) showing all stages of its life cycle. 256 pp. Females tend to be less active than males and are seen less frequently, but both sexes can be attracted to fermenting fruit baits. Perchers typically spend only part of the day actively looking for a mate. [10], Male searching behavior in butterflies generally falls into two different strategies. Each species that enters diapause will do so in a different life stage; egg, larva, pupa, or adult. However, there are accounts of complete defoliation of both C. occidentalis (Langlois and Langlois 1964) and C. laevigata (Solomon et al. 2009) and possibly three in Florida (Glassberg et al. Soil – best in damp to wet but will grow in dry soil [6], The larvae of A. celtis feed upon the leaves and leaf buds of hackberry trees. Adults feed on tree sap, fermenting fruit, dung, carrion, and rarely flower nectar (Opler and Krizek 1984). [6][10], Scelionid egg parasites antagonize many species of Asterocampa, including the hackberry emperor. Allen TJ. About every five years, we are blessed with huge eruptions of Hackberry Emperors. Princeton University Press. Another notable characteristic is that it rarely is spotted visiting a flower, which is considered unusual for a butterfly. in the family Celtidaceae. Half-grown larvae hibernate over the winter in fallen hackberry leaves along the forest floor. The species is not very deterred by human development. Krombein KV, Hurd Jr.PD, Smith DR, Burks BD. Instead, they commonly eat hackberry sap, feces, dead animals including decaying pigs, snakes, and dogs, and old fruit. The northern (and Florida panhandle) race is "celtis". Photograph by Don Hall, University of Florida. It is native to North America, especially the eastern half from Canada to northern Mexico. Its range extends to the southwest into regions like Arizona, New Mexico, and other parts of the Rockies, as shown by the map. It can commonly be found across the Midwest and especially along the east coast from Florida up to New England. It gets its name from the hackberry tree (Celtis occidentalis and others in the genus Celtis) upon which it lays its eggs.The hackberry tree is the only host plant for A. celtis and is the food source for larvae. [3][7], Adults feed on a variety of food sources. (Hackberry Psyllids). Larvae are similar to those of the tawny emperor: green with yellow-green and white stripes; the last segment is forked. The hackberry emperor is a common butterfly of river bottoms and other areas where its host plants are common but it also may be found in upland areas. Historically, dense swarms have been documented in some southern states (Lambremont 1984). Hackberry trees are the only host plants of the Hackberry Emperor. 2005. There are two generations per year throughout most of the range (Opler et al. Opler PA, Krizek GO. In addition to birds, Barbary sheep, coyotes, foxes, and squirrels enjoy the fruit of this tree. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Butterflies of the East Coast: An Observer's Guide. Third instars (probably even a few from the first generation [Opler and Krizek 1984, Cech and Tudor 2005]) attach to the undersides of leaves, turn brown and overwinter (diapause) in the rolled leaves (Allen 2000). in the family Celtidaceae. 2009). 345 pp. It is common in northern and central Florida but is infrequent in southern Florida (Minno et al. Figure 2. plants. This species has a limited range in New York. The Ohio Journal of Science 64: 1-11. Butterflies of Florida: Field Guide. Figure 8. [5], The hackberry emperor is found across a wide range within North America. Description. 2003. Larvae of this species are far more gregarious than those of the Hackberry Emperor, especially during early instars, when they pack together on host plant leaves. Butterflies East of the Great Plains. A tachinid fly parasitoid, Chetogena edwardsii, is another common threat to the hackberry emperor. However, the hackberry emperor likely does not aid in pollination in any significant way. Lambremont EN. Tawny Emperor, Hackberry Emperor, Viceroy, Red-spotted Purple, and many other species spend the winter as larvae. 512 pp. It often is found along water sources and lowlands, although it lives in a broad range of habitats. ... Last year was a good year for the American Snout in Kingston. They seldom make visitations to flowers so nectar is not a primary food source. This production of multiple generations within one year makes it such that all life stages may be present at one time within a single site or host tree. Langlois TH, Langlois MH. Eggs: Eggs are white or pale yellow and surrounded by a series of vertical ridges. Hackberry Emperors are bivoltine; the first flight being approximately in June, the second in August. The host plants are Hackberry trees. [4], Generalist species like birds and mammals, such as bears and raccoons, will eat larvae that lie along the forest floor. Following a summer shower, hundreds of the adults may visit small puddles of water along gravel and dirt roadways. Princeton University Press. Flatheaded hackberry borer galleries can be visible beneath the bark, and attacked trees may weep black liquid around the egg masses (figure 7). It can commonly be found throughout most of its distribution. Three species of butterflies feed on the leaves as larvae: Hackberry Emperor, Tawny Emperor, and American Snout. 1984. 2008. By 1975, Roger Pease had found Hackberry Emperor at Forest Park in Springfield, and shortly after that found Tawny Emperor larvae there as well. Adults: The wing spread of adults is 2.0 to 2.6 inches (Daniels 2003). The upper surface of the wings is light brown with the distal half of the forewing darker. Hill Forest, Durham Co., NC 7/4/2003. Hackberry Emperor eggs are laid in clusters on the underside of the leaf, and larvae feed on fresh leaves singly or in small loose groups. By 1988, he had reared both A. clyton and A. celtis from larvae found on hackberry trees there (Lep. Ventral wing view of an adult hackberry emperor, Asterocampa celtis (Boisduval & Leconte). The head is ringed with small fingerlike projects, and 2 larger projections on top of the head fork and resemble miniature deer antlers. The pupae are attached to a silk pad by the cremaster. Soc. However, Minno and Minno (1999) state that the young larvae overwinter in leaf nests on the tree. Hackberry is a host for six different species of butterflies. The larval hosts of the hackberry emperor are hackberry trees (Celtis spp.) Netleaf hackberry berries are enjoyed by a wide range of wildlife. Hackberry Emperor, Fiery Skipper + 11 other species Aug. 31 at Rosetta McClain Gardens, Toronto Showing 1-11 of 11 messages. [3][6], Asterocampa celtis lives wherever the hackberry tree lives. When a male sees movement nearby it will quickly fly out to attempt to mate, but stay within a limited habitat. 2000. Figure 5. Larva of the hackberry emperor, Asterocampa celtis (Boisduval & Leconte). Scott JA. Innermost of 2 bars extending in from leading edge is broken (think, "hacked") into 2 spots. Its status is uncertain elsewhere. Solomon JD, Vowell TE, Jr., Horton RC. The hackberry tree is the only host plant for A. celtis and is the food source for larvae. [4], As a member of the family Nymphalidae, the hackberry emperor oviposits its eggs in clutches, or clusters, upon hackberry leaves. The larvae of several wood-boring beetles are known to feed on this tree (see Wood-Boring Beetle Table). They create a nest out of leaves and wait until spring to emerge. The hackberry emperor, Asterocampa celtis(Boisduval & Leconte), is also known as the hackberry butterfly (Miller 1992) although the latter name is somewhat misleading because there are two other eastern United States butter- flies—the American snout, Libytheana carinenta[Cramer], and the tawny emperor, Asterocampa clyton[Boisduval & Leconte]—and also a number of other Asterocampaspe- … 256 pp. 1975. According to Opler and Krizek (1984), the leaves with the diapausing larvae drop from the trees in the fall, and the larvae must then climb the tree to resume feeding in the spring. The other strategy is to perch. 1997. Some factors influencing oviposition could be that laying eggs in a large cluster decreases the time and energy necessary for searching for new leaf sites, which decrease the risk of maternal death between oviposition events. There are a few plausible evolutionary reasons for this behavior, but the exact cause for this species' behavior is contentious. The ventral aspect of the hind wing is characterized by a row of post-median eyespots with powdery blue-green centers. Adults may be spotted along wooded streams and feed on sap, There are also oblique whitish-yellow stripes on the sides and two short tails on the posterior end. Bark detail of a 2 meter tall shrub. Adventure Publications, Inc. Cambridge, Minnesota. Hackberry Emperor PUPA near his Collapsed Larval Exoskeleton. The pale eggs are laid in clusters of 5-20 eggs on the host plant. Adults have a very rapid flight. This species can more accurately be described as parasitizing their hosts and plant food sources since they extract nutrients without providing any benefits to the host. HW with row of black spots inward from margin. The upper half of the head is brown with a pair of stout black horns dorsally. This is a larval host plant for several butterflies including American Snout (Libytheana carinenta), Mourning Cloak (Nymphalis antiopa), Hackberry Emperor (Asterocampa celtis), and Tawny Emperor (Asterocampa clyton) and Question Mark Butterfly (Polygonia interrogationis). Photograph by Jerry Butler, University of Florida. These psyllids form small galls on the leaves, and they often disfigure them. This plant supports Hackberry Emperor (Asterocampa celtis) and Question Mark Butterfly (Polygonia interrogationis) larvae. comm. Her larva will develop inside the caterpillar, consuming its insides until the wasp is mature enough to emerge. It gets its name from the hackberry tree (Celtis occidentalis and others in the genus Celtis) upon which it lays its eggs. According to Pease (pers. The body is approximately 1.4" long. Head with two short branched horns on the top. Eggs of the hackberry emperor, Asterocampa celtis (Boisduval & Leconte). For A. celtis, laying eggs in clusters is its best strategy to produce the most offspring.[5][7]. Only the proboscis is used to touch parts of the flower, which suggests that the butterfly would be an ineffective pollinator. The male rests on rocks, trees, or fallen branches often along streams from the afternoon until around sundown. Oxford University Press. Many species of butterflies consider it the perfect caterpillar food plant, including the Question Mark, Mourning Cloak, Hackberry Emperor, Tawny Emperor and the darling American Snout. Some sources state that the larvae feed communally. Don, did you end up looking for pipevine swallowtail larvae in Port Hope? Laying eggs in clusters results in higher fecundity for the female. [9] Eggs look white with a faint green-yellow hue. Hackberry Emperor Caterpillar cdn.butterflyatlas.org. The two most common hackberries in the eastern United States, the more northern hackberry, Celtis occidentalis Linnaeus, and the more southern sugarberry, Celtis laevigata Willd., can usually be recognized by the slightly to heavily warty appearance (or pronounced ridges on mature Celtis occidentalis) of the bark. Stanford University Press. I was able to raise 5 to adulthood from ova/larvae located on hackberry. Furthermore, the hackberry emperor may be seen near woodland edges, near creeks, around buildings, and around damp, muddy areas. One strategy is to actively patrol an area for females. The two most common hackberries in the eastern U.S., the more northern hackberry, Celtis occidentalis Linnaeus and the more southern sugarberry, Celtis laevigata Willd., can usually be recognized by the slightly to heavily warty appearance (or pronounced ridges on mature C. occidentalis) of the bark.

hackberry emperor larvae

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